DIRECTIONS for the question 1 to 4: Study the passages below carefully and answer the questions that follow passage The National Institute of Oceanography (NIO) in Goa has developed a real-time reporting and Internet-accessible coastal sea-level monitoring system and it has been operational at Verem jetty in the Mandovi estuary in Goa since September 24, 2005. The gauge uses a cellular modem to put on the Internet real-time sea-level data, which can be accessed by authorized personnel. By using a cellular phone network, coastal sea-level changes are continuously updated on to a web-server. The sea-level gauge web site can be made available to television channels to broadcast real-time visualization of the coastal sea level, particularly during oceanogenic hazards such as storm surges or a tsunami. A network of such gauges along the coast and the islands that lie on either side of the mainland would provide data to disaster management agencies to disseminate warnings to coastal communities and beach tourism centres.
The gauge incorporates a bottom pressure transducer as the sensing element. The sea unit of the gauge, which houses the pressure transducer, is mounted within a cylindrical protective housing, which in turn is rigidly held within a mechanical structure. This structure is secured to a jetty. The gauge is powered by a battery, which is charged by solar panels. Battery, electronics, solar panels, and cellular modems are mounted on the top portion of this structure. The pressure sensor and the logger are continuously powered on, and their electrical current consumption is 30 mA and 15 mA respectively. The cellular modem consumes 15 mA and 250 mA during standby and data transmission modes, respectively. The pressure sensor located below the low-tide level measures the hydrostatic pressure of the overlying water layer. An indigenously designed and developed microprocessor based data logger interrogates the pressure transducer and acquires the pressure data at the rate of two samples a second. The acquired pressure data is averaged over an interval of five minutes to remove high-frequency wind-waves that are superimposed on the lower frequency tidal cycle. The averaged data is recorded in a multimedia card. The measured water pressure is converted to water level using sea water density and acceleration owing to the earth's gravity. The water level so estimated is then referenced to chart datum (CD), which is the internationally accepted reference level below which the sea level will not fall. The data received at the Internet server is presented in graphical format together with the predicted sea level and the residual. The residual sea level (that is, the measured minus the predicted sea level) provides a clear indication of sea-level oscillation and a quantitative estimate of the anomalous behaviour, the driving force for which could be atmospheric forcing (storm) or geophysical (tsunami). A network of sea-level gauges along the Indian coastline and islands would also provide useful information to mariners for safe navigation in shallow coastal waters and contribute to various engineering projects associated with coastal zone management, besides dredging operations, port operations and management of inland water resources (reservoirs, dams). The system can also be used effectively for sharing of water resources between States and neighbouring countries, and for monitoring and implementation of river water treaties with greater transparency. Among the various communication technologies used for real-time transmission of sea-level data are the wired telephone connections, VHF/UHF transceivers, satellite transmit terminals and cellular connectivity. Wired telephone connections are severely susceptible to loss of connectivity during natural disasters such as storm surges, primarily because of telephone line breakage. Communication via VHF/UHF transceivers is limited by line-of-sight distance between transceivers and normally offer only point-to-point data transfer. Satellite communication via platform transmit terminals (PTTs) has wide coverage and, therefore, allows data reception from offshore platforms. However, data transfer speeds are limited. Further, many satellites (for example, GOES, INSAT) permit data transfer only at predefined time-slots, thereby inhibiting continuous data access. Technologies of data reporting via satellites have undergone a sea change recently in terms of frequency of reportage, data size, recurring costs and so forth. Broadband technology has been identified as one that can be used optimally for real-time reporting of data because of its inherent advantages such as a continuous two-way connection that allows high-speed data transfer and near real-time data reporting. While satellite communication is expensive, wireless communication infrastructure and the ubiquity of cellular phones have made cellular communication affordable. Low initial and recurring costs are an important advantage of cellular communication. A simple and cost-effective methodology for real-time reporting of data is the cellular-based GPRS technology, which has been recently implemented at the NIO for real-time reporting of coastal sea level data.
According to the passage which one of the following statements is not true ?
Network of gauges along the coast and the islands would help disaster management agencies to disseminate warnings.
Cellular based GPRS technology is not a simple and cost effective method for real-time reporting of data.
Disadvantage of wired telephone connections is the loss of connectivity during disasters due to line breakages.
Data reporting via satellites has undergone changes in terms of frequency, data size, recurring cost etc.
Answer: Option D. Refer to the last sentence of the third paragraph for the answer.
What is the outermost part of the sea unit of the gauge ?
Cylindrical protective housing
Answer: Option B. Refer to the second sentence of the 2nd paragraph where the answer has been clearly mentioned.
What is the limitation of satellite communication via platform transmit terminals ?
Off shore platforms
Data transfer speed
None of these
Answer: Option C. Refer to the middle portion of the last paragraph where (PTT 8) has been mentioned in brackets.
Which one of the following relationships is correct as per the passage ?
Predicted sea level is a product of measured sea level and residual sea level.
Predicted sea level is the difference between measured sea level and residual sea level.
Residual sea level is the sum of predicted sea level and measured sea level.
Predicted sea level is obtained by dividing measured sea level
Answer: Option B. Refer to the last sentence of the second paragraph.
DIRECTIONS for the question 5 to 9: In each question, a statement is followed by two assumptions numbered I and II. Consider the statement and the following assumptions to decide which of the assumptions is implicit in the statement. Mark answer as A. if only assumption I is implicit; B. if either I or II is implicit; C. if only assumption II is implicit; D. if neither I nor II is implicit.
Statement : Like a mad man, I decided to follow him. Assumptions : I. I am not a mad man. II. I am a mad man.
Answer: Option A. By stating that he behaved like a mad man, the author implicitly shows that this was an aberration to his normal behaviour- thus, he is not a mad man.
Statement : If it is easy to become an engineer, I don't want to be an engineer. Assumptions : I. An individual aspires to be professional. I. One always desires to achieve something which is hard earned.
Answer: Option D. I is a broad-based restatement, while II is irrelevant. So, none of the statements are the assumptions of the given sstatement.
Statement : All the employees are notified that the organisation will provide transport facilities at half the cost from the nearby railway station to the office except to those who have been provided with travelling allowance. Assumptions : I. Most of the employees will travel by the office transport. II. Those who are provided with travelling allowance will not read such a notice.
Answer: Option D. The first is not implicit as the statement does not say anything about the choice of employees and the second is a far-fetched and fallacious assumption as notices are supposedly read by all.
Statement : An advertisement of a Bank "Want to open a bank account! Just dial our 'room service' and we will come at your doorsteps." Assumptions : I. There is a section of people who may find difficulty in coming to the bank office for opening bank accounts. II. Nowadays banking has become very competitive.
Answer: Option A The second is a general statement. The first is implicit because that give the very reason for the presence of the advertisement. It targets that section.
Statement : I can take you quickly from Kanpur to Lucknow by my cab but then you must pay me double the normal charges. Assumptions : I. Normally, it will take more time to reach Lucknow from Kanpur. II. People want to reach quickly but they will not pay extra money for it.
Answer: Option A. The statement mentions quickly. The second one is not implicit because the reluctance to pay double is not shown in the statement.
DIRECTIONS for the question 10: Pick out the most effective pair of words from the given choices (1), (2), (3) and (4) in each of these questions to make the sentence meaningfully complete.
The problem of housing shortage _____________ with the population explosion has also been ____________ by this policy.
projected — discussed
dispensed — acknowledged
threatened — manifested
compounded — addressed
Answer: Option D. Population explosion compounds the problem of housing.
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