DIRECTIONS for the question 1-3: These questions have a statement followed by two conclusions I and II. Decide which of the conclusions follows from the statement. Mark answer as A. if conclusion I follows. B. if neither conclusion I follows nor II follows. C. if conclusion II follows. D. if both conclusions I and II follow.
Statement: Our parliamentary system is not very successful because most of our countrymen cast their votes based on caste and religion. Conclusions: I. Only educated and principled persons should be given the right to vote. II. We need, to create an awareness in our people to rise above caste and religion at the time of casting their vote.
Answer: Option C. Conclusion I is not valid as educated persons can also cast their votes based on caste and religion. Conclusion II is valid.
Statement: Against the backdrop of surging inflation, the Union Cabinet in March 2010 has decided to increase the Dearness Allowance for Central Government employees and pensioners by 8% with effect from January 2010. Conclusions: I. This will provide some relief to the Central Government employees and pensioners against the surging inflation. II. Increase in Dearness Allowance will neutralize, to some extent, increase in the cost of living.
Answer: Option D. Both the conclusions follow
Statement: Some people in this country want the President to be more than a figurehead and to take more active interest in national politics. Conclusions : I. In a parliamentary democracy, the President has to be content with a more or less passive role. II. The President, under the provisions of the Constitution, is bound by the advice of the Council of Ministers and so he or she should not come into conflict with the Ministry or Parliament.
Answer: Option B. Neither of the conclusion follows. Both the conclusions use extreme words so are negated.
DIRECTIONS for the question 4-7: In the real world, U.S. global planning has always been sophisticated and careful, as you'd expect from a major superpower with a highly centralized and class conscious dominant social group. Their power, in turn, is rooted in their ownership and management of the economy, as is the norm in most societies. During World War II, American planners were well aware that the United States was going to emerge as a world-dominant power, in a position of hegemony that had few historical parallels, and they organized and met in order to deal with this situation. From 1939 to 1945, extensive studies were conducted by the Council on Foreign Relations and the State Department. One group was called the War-Peace Studies Group, which met for six years and produced extensive geopolitical analyses and plans. The Council on Foreign Relations is essentially the business input to foreign policy planning. These groups also involved every top planner in the State Department, with the exception of the Secretary of State. The conception that they developed is what they called "Grand Area" planning. The Grand Area was a region that was to be subordinated to the needs of the American economy. As one planner put it, it was to be the region that is "strategically necessary for world control." The geopolitical analysis held that the Grand Area had to include at least the Western Hemisphere, the Far East, and the former British Empire, which we were then in the process of dismantling and taking over ourselves. This is what is called "anti-imperialism" in American scholarship. Detailed plans were laid for particular regions of the Grand Area and also for international institutions that were to organize and police it, essentially in the interests of this subordination to U.S. domestic needs. The Grand Area was also to include western and southern Europe and the oil-producing regions of the Middle East; in fact, it was to include everything, if that were possible.
What does the author mean when he says, "position of hegemony that had few historical parallels"?
America had no good history to be remembered
America would win the IInd World War to become the super power
America would become one of the predominant countries, something which had not happened earlier
America would emerge a class conscious social group, which no country had ever been before.
Answer: Option C. Option A is out of scope. The words ‘had few historical parallels’ refers to option C.
The passage supports the following statements except
a detailed planning was done for regions of the Grand Area
America had always been a super power, even before the Second World War.
the Secretary of State was not part of the planning involved for the Grand Area.
America's power lies in its ownership and management of the economy
Answer: Option C. All others are mentioned in the paragraph.
What led the planners to think of the Grand Area concept?
The sheer talent of managing their economy well.
To fulfill certain US needs
The need for imperialism.
Their intuition about America's rise after the Second World War
Answer: Option B. The passage refers to second para – ‘The Grand Area was a region that was to be subordinated to the needs of the American economy.’ Hence option B.
What could be the most suitable title for the passage?
The Grand Area
American Global Planning.
An Example of Anti-Imperialism
The Making of the American Super Power.
Answer: Option B. Option A is too specific – it does not tell us what The Grand Area means. B is better as it tells us more clearly what it does. Hence B.
DIRECTIONS for the question 8-9: In the following questions, each question has a statement followed by two conclusions. Taking the statement to be true, decide which of the given conclusions definitely follows from the given statement. Indicate your answer as A. if only I follows, if only II follows if neither I, nor II follows and if both I and II follows.
Statements: The Supreme Court gave a judgement that the maintenance of old age parents is the responsibility of the married girls, if they do not have brothers. Conclusions: I. Constitution is always interpreted to help oppressed people out. II. Before the Supreme Court gave the verdict, a married girl must have denied to pay for the maintenance to her parents.
Answer: Option B Conclusion I does not follow from the statement. It cannot be generalized to say that the constitution is interpreted always to help oppressed people. Moreover, the statement is about Supreme Court and not about interpretation of the constitution. Conclusion II definitely follows. There has to be some observation on the part of The Supreme Court to give the judgement.
Ideas given by our ancestors that were once discarded as uneconomical and unviable, turn out to be as functional and inevitable in present circumstances. Conclusion: I. In ancient period, ideas were considered either completely functional or totally infeasible. II. Ideas cannot change from time to time.
Answer: Option C. Neither of the two conclusions follows. The statement says that the ideas that were given by our ancestors were then discarded for their unviability but presently they turn out to be functional and inevitable. Conclusion I does not follow since the statement does not talk about the classification of ideas. Conclusion II does not follow because the statement does not say that there are no new ideas in the present
DIRECTIONS for the question 10: In each question below is given statement followed by two assumptions numbered I and II. An assumption is something supposed or taken for granted. You have to consider the statement and the following assumptions and decide which of the assumptions is implicit in the statement. Mark answer A. If only 1 assumption is implicit B. If only assumption II is implicit C. If neither I nor II is implicit and D. If both I and II are implicit
Statement: "Use 'M' Brand shoes. They are available in all sizes and last longer" - an advertisement in the newspaper 'A'. Assumption I: Some people do not know about 'M' brand shoes. Assumption II: People generally prefer shoes which last longer
Answer: Option D. Both the assumptions are implicit. Had there been no one who would not know about M brand shoes, there would be no point in giving such information. Assumption II is implicit. The statement says one should buy 'M' brand shoes because they are available in all sizes and last longer. It is clear that people would prefer shoes that last longer, and thus this is reason enough to convince them to buy these shoes. Option; D is the correct choice.