Kangaroos are Australia's best-known animals. When Australia's first European explorers saw a strange animal as tall as a human leaping around like giant grasshoppers they couldn't believe their eyes! They asked Australia's original inhabitants - the Aborigines - "What are these animals?" They replied "kangaroo." Now to the Aborigines, this meant "I don't understand you." The Europeans thought they were referring to the big-footed hoppers, so they named them Kangaroos. Kangaroos, and their close relatives, vary greatly in size, ranging in weight from 500 grams to 90 kilograms. There are at least 69 different types of kangaroos called species. These species are found naturally in the wild only in Australia and New Guinea, although feral populations of some species have been introduced in New Zealand, Great Britain and Hawaii. Recently, scientists have separated these species into two families, the Macropodidae and the Potoroidae, which together form a super-family known as the Macropodoidea (or macropods). The family Macropodidae includes kangaroos, wallabies, "wallaroos, pademelons, tree-kangaroos and the forest wallabies of New Guinea. The family Potoroidae is made up of potoroos, rat-kangaroos and bettongs which are only found in Australia. Kangaroos of all sizes have one thing in common - powerful back legs with long feet. They are distinguished from other animals by the way they hop on these strong back legs. Only a few other small mammals, such as hopping mice, do this. Hopping uses slightly less energy than four-footed running, but this advantage is lost at low speed. To move slowly, kangaroos balance on their front paws and tail, and then swing their hind legs forward in a pendulum motion. One of the many odd things about kangaroos is that, on land, they can only move their hind feet together but when swimming they can kick each leg independently. Tree-kangaroos can move each hind leg separately when climbing. It is also interesting to note that, while several species of kangaroos have tails that can wrap around and carry nesting material such as grass and small branches, not one of the tree-kangaroos has the ability to grasp branches with its tail.
Which of the following statements is true as per the passage?
Scientists have not been able to separate the kangaroo species.
The family Potoroidae is found only in Australia.
Only kangaroos can hop, no other animal is known to hop like them.
Not all kangaroo species have tails.
Answer: Option B. Refer to “The family Potoroidae is made up of potoroos, rat-kangaroos and bettongs which are only found in Australia”.
Kangaroos lose the advantage of hopping while
at low speed
Answer: Option C. Refer to “Hopping uses slightly less energy than four-footed running, but this advantage is lost at low speed.”
Select the correct option. I. Kangaroos are usually not more than 500 gms. II. Kangaroos can be more than 500 gms but less than 50 kilograms. III. Kangaroos can be up to 90 kilograms. IV. Kangaroos can be 20 kilograms or 60 kilograms or more.
Both I and III are true
Only II is true
Both III and IV can be true
Only IV is true
Answer: Option C. Kangaroos can weigh between 500g and 90kg. Hence both the options 3rd and 4th are correct.
What is the one interesting fact about tree-kangaroos?
They do not have tails.
They can easily grasp branches with their tails.
They cannot grasp branches with their tails.
They cannot climb trees.
Answer: Option C. Refer to “It is also interesting ………….. of the tree-kangaroos has the ability to grasp branches with its tail.”
DIRECTIONS for question 5-8: In each of these questions, choose the option that best captures the essence of the text.
Although these two interpretations must acknowledge and accentuate their difference and define their irreducibility, there is no question of choosing a place because here we are in a region (let's say, provisionally, a region of historicity) where the category of choice seems particularly trivial; and because we must first try to conceive of the common ground.
One should not try to conceive of any common ground for the greater comprehension.
We are in a region of historicity where choice does not seem particularly trivial.
Today there is a question of choosing between the two interpretations.
Choosing between the two interpretations is trivial and we must seek common ground.
Answer: Option D. The text states that we must try for common ground, hence option 1 is ruled out. Category of choice seems particularly trivial, hence option 2 is ruled out. The text states that there is no question of choosing a place, hence option 3 is ruled out.
It is, therefore, the censor lying between the unconscious and the foreconscious. But is it not carelessness on the part of this guardian to diminish its vigilance during the night and to allow the suppressed emotions of the unconscious to come to expression? I think not, for when the critical guardian goes to rest, he takes care to close the gate to motility.
Conditions are more harmful when a displacement of forces is produced during a dream.
Carelessness on part of the guardian censor mechanism during the night is preplanned and deliberate as motor apparatuses are locked down to prevent damage.
The unconscious wish-feelings do not strive to assert themselves during the night.
Psychosis refers to the optimum functioning of the 'guardian'.
Answer: Option B. The guardian takes care to close the gate to motility. Hence option 1 is incorrect. The emotions are suppressed hence option 3 is incorrect. Option 4 cannot be understood from the text at all.
Expression in art, music, poetry, drama, literature and philosophy was everything to the romantics. Romantic ideas arose both as implicit and explicit criticisms of 18th century Enlightenment thought. For the most part, these ideas were generated by a sense of inadequacy with the dominant ideals of the Enlightenment and of the society that produced them.
Everyone agrees on the definitions of the word 'Romantic'.
Expression was the least of romantic concerns.
Romantic ideas in art, poetry, etc., arose in an antithetical manner vis-a-vis 18th century Enlightenment thought.
Romantic period does not refer to an age at all but to a style of writing.
Answer: Option C. The first sentence states that expression was everything to the romantics – hence option 2 is ruled out. Option 1 cannot be understood from the information given. It was not only writing that the romantics looked at but also at music and drama. Hence option 4 is ruled out.
Analysis brought out that my wife was occupied with others at the table, and that I did not like it; in the dream itself exactly the opposite occurs, for the person who replaces my wife gives me her undivided attention. But can one wish for anything pleasanter after a disagreeable incident than that the exact contrary should have occurred, just as the dream has it? Some portion of the opposition between the latent and manifest content of the dream must be therefore derived from the realization of a wish.
What happens in a dream depends on the psyche, wishes and needs of the dreamer; it may be the opposite of reality or confirming to it, depending on what the dreamer wants.
In a dream what happens is always the opposite of what happened in reality.
There is no opposition between the latent and manifest content of a dream.
What happens in a dream depends on reality and confirms to it.
Answer: Option A The text states that “ in the dream ………opposite occurs, …….”, hence option 4 is ruled out. There is some portion of the opposition between the latent and manifest content, hence option 3 is ruled out. The word always makes 2 incorrect.
DIRECTIONS for question 9-10: IA sentence has been broken into four parts with an error in one of the parts. Identify the part that has an error.
1. A temple was erected to him 2. at the foot of the Capitoline Hill, 3. in which were deposited the 4. public treasury and the laws of the state.
Answer: Option A. A temple was erected in his honour.
1. I soon lost sight and recollection of ghostly fears 2. in the beauty of the scene as we drove along, 3. although had I known the language, or rather languages, which my fellow passenger were speaking, 4. I might not have been able to throw them off so easily.
Answer: Option C. As we have were in 3 and them in 4, the word should passengers and not passenger.
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