DIRECTIONS for questions 6 to 10: Read the following passage carefully and choose the most appropriate option from the choices given.
A definite reason for the sudden decline of the Indus Valley Civilization is still elusive, since there are no reliable records for the period, historians can only speculate. Broadly speaking, the principal theories thus far proposed fall under four headings. The first is gradual environmental change, such as a shift in climatic patterns and consequent agricultural disaster, perhaps coinciding with rapid population growth. Second, some scholars have postulated more precipitous environmental changes, such as tectonic events leading to the flooding of Mohenjodaro, the drying up of Saraswati river, or other such calamities. Third, it is conceivable that human activities such as invasions of tribespeople from the hills to the west of the Indus valley, perhaps even Indo-Aryans, contributed to the breakdown of Indus external trade links or more directly disrupted the cities. The fourth theory posits the occurrence of an epidemic or similar agent of devastation. It is still far from certain at what date the urban society broke down. The decline probably occurred in several stages, perhaps over a century or more; the period between about 2000 and 1750 BC is a reasonable estimation. The collapse of the urban system does not necessarily imply a complete breakdown in the life-style of the population in all parts of the Indus region, but it seems to have involved the end of whatever system of social and political control had preceded it. After this date the cities, as such, and many of their distinctively urban traits- the use of writing and of seals and number of the specialized urban crafts- disappear. The succeeding era, which lasted until about 750 BC, may be considered as post- Harappan or perhaps better as "post- urban." In Sindh, the Post â€“Urban phase is recognizable in the Jhukar culture at Chanhu-daro and other sites. Here certain copper or bronze weapons and tools appear to be of "foreign" type,and may be compared with examples from farther west (Iran and Central Asia) a different, but parallel, change is seen at Pirak, not far from Mehrgarh. In the Rann of Kachchh and Saurashtra there appears to have been a steady increase in the number of settlements, but all are small and none can compare with such undoubtedly Harappan cities as Dholavira. In this region, however, the distinctive, "Foreign" metal elements are less prominent. In the Sarasvati valley there is a very interesting development: here, the early Post-Urban stage is associated with the pottery known from the so-called Cemetery H at Harappa. This coincides with a major reduction in both the number and size of settlements, suggesting deterioration in the environment. In the eastern Punjab, too, there is a disappearance of the larger, urban sites but no comparable reduction in the number of smaller settlements. This is also true of the settlements farther east in the Ganges-Yamuna valleys. It is probably correct to conclude that, in each of these areas during the Post-Urban Period, material culture exhibited some tendency to develop regional variations, sometimes showing continuations of features already present during the Pre-Urban and Urban phases.
What is the central idea of the passage?
An attempt to understand the reasons behind the decline of the Harappan culture
A brief mention of the facts pertaining to the end of the Harappan culture and the post-urban developments
A discussion on the various factors that have contributed to the beginning of the Harappan culture
An informative article that tries to shed light on the diverse views about the socio-economic issues pertaining to the Harappan culture
Answer: Option B.
Although in the first paragraph, author gives the reason for the fall of harappan society, but in the third and the fourth paragraphs the author briefly describes post-Harappan era.
According to the passage...
A. It is likely that an impoverished agricultural base due to over-exploitation, or a succession of devastating floods wiped out the Harappan culture.
B. Gradual environmental change, such as a shift in climatic patterns and consequent agricultural disaster, perhaps coinciding with rapid population growth.
C. It appears that invasions of tribespeople from the surrounding areas hastened the disappearance of harappan civilization.
D. Most likely tectonic events leading to the flooding of Mohenjo-Daro and the drying up of the Sarasvati River, or other such calamities led to the end of the Indus civilization.
A and B
B, C and D
A and C
All of the above
Answer: Option D.
The answer to this question is given in the first paragraph. In the first para, the author has clearly mentioned four factors that could be the reasons behind the decline of harappan civilization. Statement C can be understood by reading the lines "It is ....phases" given in the last few lines of the passage.
What piece of information does the author share about Rann of kuchchh and Saurashtra regions?
There was a collapse of the urban system due to deterioration in the social and political control
Use of tools made of copper and bronze were more prominent
There seems to be a steady increase in the number of settlements
The increase in the number of settlements was more than as seen in Harappan cities
Answer: Option C.
After reading the lines "There appears to have been â€¦â€¦â€¦..of settlements" given in the third paragraph, we get the answer. Moreover, the opposite is stated in statement 4 and that makes it incorrect. Statement 2 is incorrect as per the last line of the third para " In this region...........less prominent."Statement 1 gives us information about Indus region.
Which of the following is not considered as a reason for the decline of Indus civilization?
Loss of social and political control.
Wars amongst themselves.
Answer: Option D
All the factors mentioned in options 1, 2 and 3 are mentioned. The one mentioned in 4 is not there in the passage.
What is the synonym for the word "precipitous"?
Answer: Option C.
The synonym for the word "precipitous" is abrupt.