Doctor of Philosophy- Ph.D

Basics of PhD in India
Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D) is doctorate degree awarded by many universities around the world. Different criteria and methodologies are adopted by different countries to award these degrees. A Ph.D is pursued in a discipline which the person studied during his/her post-graduation. It involves substantial research work and presentation of a thesis, which is to be accredited by fellow academicians. By undertaking a Ph.D, a person displays the following:
  • Mastery over one's subject
  • Respect for the Discipline
  • Capacity of conducting research
  • Ability to expand the horizons of knowledge in one's subject.
Think for PhD only if you are genuinely interested in research or teaching. Generally Ph.D is normally done by a person after completing his/her post graduation. People who possess and display passion for their subjects undertake Ph.Ds. A person requires commitment and an eye for detail to do a Ph.D. He/she should be clear about the subject in which they want to pursue Ph.D. While pursuing PhDs, students are required to give presentations on the research work they had done. They need to submit progress reports, provide pre-submission presentation and finally defend the thesis in an open defense viva-voce. 

A person must have a Masters Degree before pursuing Ph.D. In few cases, M.Phil (Masters in Philosophy) is must to opt for a Ph.D. The federal research organization 'University Grants Commission' (UGC) and 'Council of Scientific & Industrial Research' (CSIR) conducts National Eligibility Test (NET) for Lectureship & Junior Research Fellowship (JRF). Besides this, many universities both in India and abroad also conduct their own entrance exams for admissions in Ph.D, depending upon the selected subjects. After clearing these tests, the selected candidates have to appear for personal interviews conducted by the respective universities. 

Admission to Ph.D in India is normally on the basis of entrance test conducted by the institution/University itself. However few institutes also consider score of standardized tests like GRE & GATE.
Scope of Ph.D
The Scope of doing Ph.D in India as well as abroad has increased many folds in the past few years. Some believe that after completing Ph.D they are only left with the options of teaching or continuing doing research work. This is not at all true. Now, a student has multiple options to look upon after completing his/her Postdoctoral Fellow Program. These options are as follows:
  • Academic Jobs:
    In India, a candidate can work as a Scientist/Professor after completing his/her Ph.D. These jobs come with the benefits of a pay security and dignity in society. In foreign countries, while doing a Ph.D, a student gets the opportunity to work with reputed scientists.
  • Industrial Jobs:
    Another area of interest for Ph.Ds is the industrial sector. With rapid growth in the country, accompanied with the entry of private sector in many fields, numerous vistas have opened up for Ph.Ds. Research is highly valued by corporate now, and in the years to come, its value will only go up. A prime example of a research driven sector is the pharmaceutical sector. In the years to come, we are bound to see a greater number of sectors giving importance to research and development.
  • Start-ups:
    Since the past few years many start ups and entrepreneurial ventures have emerged in the market. Start ups have become formidable engines of innovation. Many Ph.D holders nowadays are joining start ups directly or after working some years in academia.Keeping the above in mind, we can clearly see that Ph.Ds are for those with deep interests in their subjects, and those with a desire for technical innovation.
PhD Abroad
All Ph.D programs abroad are rigorous and last between 3 & 6 years. Do not apply for Ph.D just because you have completed Post Graduation in India. Think for Ph.D only if you are genuinely interested in research or teaching. 

Application procedure and approach for university selection for doing Ph.D is entirely different from Graduate program application procedure. To begin with, you must do some initial research on your specific field you wish to pursue. Then search for appropriate university/institute, department/s where research projects are going on in your specific area of research. Try to get in touch with the Ph.D professors through mail mentioning your profile. Normally these professors recommend your name for Ph.D. They might ask you to submit GRE general test score or GRE subject test score. 

Admission to Ph.D programs abroad is normally on the basis of GRE entrance test along with other personal & research credentials. However few universities might ask you to appear for GRE subject test apart from GRE general test.
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